6 Ruby Laser. Rubies have a long history of myths and lore. The first ruby laser was developed by Theodore H. "Ted" Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories in 1960. One of the features of this laser is that it has the option of having; extremely short pulses of high power that can be shorter than 20 nanoseconds (one nanosecond equals one-billionth of a second). It has wavelength of 6943 Angstroms. Ruby is also notable for producing a laser that is visible to the human eye, unlike many other solid-state lasers. The ruby laser’s main uses are; tattoo removal, skin pigmentation removal and permanent hair removal. Ruby belongs to the family of gems consisting of Al 2 O 3 with various types of impurities. For example pink Ruby contains 0.05% Cr atoms. The chromium ions (Cr +3 ) take the site of Al in Al 2 O 3 lattice, which provides metastable energy states in solid state medium. In the past half-century, lasers have gone from expensive physics experiments using rods of ruby to cheap cutting or engraving tools, and toys used … 2. The Q-switched Ruby laser is manufactured by Palomar and has a wavelength of 694 nm. The first working laser was built in 1960 by Maiman, using a ruby crytal and so called the Ruby laser. In the years to come, the ruby laser was used in various medical treatments. The ruby laser is The ruby laser is used as a pulsed laser, producing red light at 694.3 nm. A ruby-laser is a solid-state laser that employs a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium. Ruby laser has following uses or advantages or applications: 1. The tumor, an angioma, was destroyed with a single pulse that lasted about one thousandth of a second. Ruby lasers usually have a red tone and are often used in range finding equipment for the military and surveyors. Ruby laser has very high output power of the order of 10 4 – 10 6 watts. Besides being incredibly fast, the laser was far more comfortable for the patient than the 1,000-watt xenon arc lamps that were being used in similar operations. • The ruby laser uses ruby crystal as active or amplifying medium made from aluminium oxide doped with chromium (Cr). After receiving a pumping flash from the flash tube, the laser light emerges for as long as the excited atoms persist in the ruby rod, which is typically about a millisecond. It emits visible red radiation at a wavelength of 695 nm (see Table 40-1). The ruby laser is used only in the pulse mode. Ruby lasers are used for holography, industrial cutting and welding. Ruby LASER Ruby LASER Construction: (i) Active medium: It is a solid-state laser, in which a rod of a synthetic ruby crystal is used as an active medium. It is used to treat brown spots, tattoos, pigmented lesions, nevus of Ota, and café au lait macules. 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